3D Art Terms + Processes

Ceramic Processes+Materials
Hand building Terms
Hand building - This term refers to the one of several techniques of building pots using the only the hands and simple tools rather than the potters wheel. The term used for creating pottery using the potter's wheel is "throwing".

Pinch - "Pinch" in ceramics is a method of shaping clay by inserting the thumb of one hand into the clay and lightly pinching with the thumb and fingers while slowly rotating the ball in the palm of the other hand.

Coil - This is the technique of building ceramic forms by rolling out coils, or ropes, of clay and joining them together with the fingers or a tool. (How to do this can be found at http://www.jhpottery.com/tutorial/coil.htm  and http://www.jhpottery.com/tutorial/scoil.htm

Slip - Slip is liquid clay. The easiest way to make slip is to gradually sift or spoon dry, powder clay into a small cup of water. Stir well as you add because it will tend to thicken up after it sits for a minute or two. You want it to be about the consistency of thick cream.

Score and Slip - Score and slip refers to a method of joining two pieces of clay together. First, score the clay; this means that you make scratches in the surfaces that will be sticking together. Then you slip it; that is you wet the surface with some slip, using it like glue. Next, you press the two pieces together. It is very important to always score and slip clay that is leather hard. If you do not, the pieces will likely pop apart when they are fired.

Molding - In this technique, flat slabs of clay are pressed into molds in order to create various shapes or forms.

Stages of Dryness - When speaking of clay, we refer to three basic stages of dryness: wet, leather hard and bone dry. They are self-explanatory.

Decorative Techniques and Terms
Sgraffito - Sgraffito is a decorating technique developed centuries ago. In its simplest embodiment, leather-hard clay is coated with an engobe or slip of contrasting color and then a pattern or picture is added by carving through or scraping off the slip to reveal the clay underneath. Example of an Asian jar decorated with sgraffito. Example of Mexican ceramics decorated with sgraffito.

Wax Resist - In this decorative technique, patterns or designs are created by brushing a wax medium over an area of clay, slip, or glaze to resist the final glaze application when the wax is dry.

Slip Trailing - Slip trailing is another decoration method. Slip (a liquid clay) is applied to the greenware through a tube or nozzle, much like icing a cake. See a demonstration here. Example of a casserole dish decorated with slip trailing.

Stamping - This is the technique of pressing forms into the clay to get decorative effects.

Majolica - Below is the definition from encyclopedia.com
(mejol´ike, meyol´-)or maiolica [from Majorca ], type of faience usually associated with wares produced in Spain, Italy, and Mexico. The process of making majolica consists of first firing a piece of earthenware, then applying a tin enamel that upon drying forms a white opaque porous surface. A design is then painted on and a transparent glaze applied. Finally the piece is fired again. This type of ware was produced in the ancient Middle East by the Babylonians, and the method remained continuously in use. It was extensively employed by the Hispano-Moresque potters of the 14th cent. By the mid-15th cent. majolica was popular in Italy, where it became justly famous through the decorations of the Della Robbia family. The method is still widely used in folk art.
Bibliography: See G. Liverani, Five Centuries of Italian Majolica (tr. 1960); M. Barnes and R. May, Mexican Majolica in Northern New Spain (1980).

Mille Fiore - This refers to a method of creating designs by folding different colored clays together into "rods" or bars, then slicing them as if you were slicing rolled cookies. This duplicates a design over and over for each slice. Here is an example of glass beads made in this manner and another explanation and example using polymer clays here.

Firing Processes and Terms Dealing with Firing
Firing - This is the process of heating the pottery to a specific temperature in order to bring about a particular change in the clay or the surface.

Bisque - The term bisque refers to ceramic ware that has been fired once without glaze.

Greenware - This refers to ceramic ware that has not been fired.

Glaze - A glass-like surface coating for ceramics that is used to decorate and seal the pores of the fired clay.

Reduction - A kiln firing in which there is insufficient oxygen to consume the free carbon emanating from the heated glaze and clay, resulting in the formation of carbon monoxide. Oxygen-starved carbon monoxide pulls oxygen from the clay body and glaze, forming color changes in the coloring oxides.

Oxidation - A kiln firing with a full supply of oxygen (as opposed to a reduction firing). Electric kilns are this type.

Raku - Raku is a method of firing pottery that takes a ceramic piece in its raw state, greenware, and quickly (in 45 minutes to an hour rather than 8 to 18 hours) takes the temperature up to almost 2000 degrees. Examples and explanations:
http://members.shaw.ca/daniel51/artstudio/raku.htm  http://www.guild.com/  

Parts of a Vase
Note: The parts of a vase correspond to the parts of a human body. See Parts of a Vase
Mouth - The opening at the top of a vase.
Neck - The (usually) narrower part that leads from the body of the vase to the mouth.
Body - This is the main part of the vase. It is usually the largest part.
Foot - This is the part of the vase that meets the floor.

Elements of Art - tools used to create
Form is an element of art that is three-dimensional and encloses volume. Cubes ,spheres,and cylinders are examples of various forms.

Line is an element of art which refers to the continuos mark made on some surface by a moving point. It may be two dimensional, like a pencil mark on a paper or it may be three dimensional(wire) or implied( the edge of a shape or form) often it is a outline,contour or silhouette.

Shape is an enclosed space defined by other elements of art. shapes may take on the appearance of two-d or three- objects.

Color is the reflection of light off a surface
  1) Hue, the name of the color, e.g. red, yellow, etc.
  2) Intensity or the purity and strength of the color such as bright ness or dullness.
  3) Value, or the lightness or darkness of the color.

Texture refers to the surface quality or "feel" of an object, such as roughness, smoothness, or softness. Actual texture can be felt while simulated textures are implied by the way the artist renders areas of the picture.

Space refers to the distance or area between, around, above or within things. It can be a description for both 2 and 3 dimensional portrayals.

Value describes the lightness or darkness of a color. Value is needed to express Volume.

Principles of Art - tips used to arrange art
 Emphasis in a composition refers to developing points of interest to pull the viewer's eye to important parts of the body of the work.

Balance is a sense of stability in the body of work. Balance can be created by repeating same shapes and by creating a distribution of visual  weight.

Harmony is achieved in a body of work by using similar elements throughout the work, harmony gives an uncomplicated look to your work.

Variety refers to the differences in the work, You can achieve variety by using difference shapes, textures, colors and values in your work.

Movement adds excitement to your work and shows action and directing the viewers eye throughout the picture plane.

Rhythm is a type of movement in drawing and painting accomplished by repeating the elements art to create movement.

Unity is seen in a painting or drawing when all the parts equal a whole. Your work should not appear disjointed or confusing.

OBJECTIVE: Use your study guide to learn about your topic and research online for more information and pictures to share in a presentation.

1. Read the definition of each term and be prepared to share in your own words (write below).
2. Research online to find more information and PRINT OUT 2-4 PICTURES of examples.
reliable sites -   http://www.moma.org/   ceramics monthly   http://www.artlex.com/   world book encyclopedia
3. Share your new notes, definition, and pictures in a group discussion during class.
4. Take notes on other topics below and turn in for credit.

1 – What is Clay? & Types of Clay
2 – Stages of Clay
3 – Firing Terminology
4 – Handbuilding Methods
5 – Potter’s Wheel Terms & Techniques
6 – Technical Pottery Terms
7 –Equipment in the Classroom
8 – What is Glaze? & Types of Glazes
9 –Methods of Glaze Application
10 –Glaze Defects